Paul Heinemann

Applied AI Research Thrusts

  • Expert systems for agricultural production decision making
  • Agricultural odor assessment utilizing sensors and neural networks to simulate human odor panel assessments
  • Automation of human-based tasks in specialty crop production

Externally Funded AI Projects

  • Green Fruit Removal Dynamics and Robotic Green Fruit Thinning System (USDA – NIFA)
  • CPS: Medium: Integrated Design of Sensing, Networks, and Cooperative Control of Multi-Vehicle Systems for Preventing Frost and Freeze Damage to Flowers and Buds of Fruit Trees (NSF/USDA-NIFA)
  • Precision Crop Load Management for Apples (USDA-NIFA)

Recent Publications

  1. Zahid, A., He, L., Zeng, L., Choi, D., Schupp, J., & Heinemann, P. 2020. Development of a robotic end-effector for apple tree pruning. Transactions of the ASABE. 63(4): 847-856.
  2. Chang, F., & Heinemann, P. 2020. Prediction of human odour assessments based on hedonic tone method using instrument measurements and multi-sensor data fusion integrated Neural Networks. Biosystems Engineering. 200:272-283.
  3. Zahid, A., Mahmud, M.S., Choi, D., Heinemann, P.H., & Schupp, J. 2020. Development of an integrated 3R end-effector with a cartesian manipulator for pruning apple trees. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 179.

headshot of a man

Paul Heinemann
Professor of Agricultural and Biological Engineering



The Center for Artificial Intelligence Foundations and Engineered Systems (CAFE), pronounced café, brings together expertise from 75 researchers representing 24 academic units across Penn State with the goal of developing cross-disciplinary interactions. The center’s focus is on accelerating advances by synergistically advancing AI foundations and the techniques to deploy them efficiently toward applications focused on engineered and defense systems. CAFE provides opportunities for research partnerships, faculty/student recruitment, and technology transition to practice.

Center for Artificial Intelligence Foundations and Engineered Systems

The Pennsylvania State University

W323 Westgate Building

University Park, PA 16802